Marine Conservation Biology Institute Marine Conservation Biology Institute
Marine Conservation Biology Institute
Protecting Marine Ecosystems

Offshore Renewable Energy


An Offshore Windfarm

Ocean acidification (OA) should be considered one of the primary results of human-generated climate change. OA is a critical problem that policy makers, marine managers and scientists face together. The flux of carbon into the atmosphere (in the form of carbon dioxide and methane) has major implications for the chemistry of the oceans. In short, anthropogenic carbon changes the pH of seawater, which decreases the availability of carbon for the production of shells, skeletons, and reefs.

The seawater carbonate system, as it’s know, is a chemical buffering system that responds to aqueous concentrations of carbon. It is through the seawater carbonate system that we can understand how greenhouses gasses (i.e. CO2) impact the acidity of the ocean. The pH of seawater is dependent on the concentration of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in seawater. Seawater pH lowers in response to the addition of CO2 from the atmosphere, making seawater more acidic. This increase in acidity alters one of the most fundamental chemical features of seawater.

The biological process of calcification (i.e. the creation of calcium carbonate shells and bones) is altered by changes in seawater pH. The CaCO3 saturation state of seawater (W), which is a metric of the availability of CaCO3 for calcification uptake, is modified by the seawater carbonate system.  Waters may be saturated or undersaturated in regards to CaCO3. In a carbon-rich future, the change in carbon concentrations in surface and in deep water has been predicted to expand the extent of undersaturated waters.  This is commonly discussed as the shoaling of aragonite and calcite saturation horizons (aragonite and calcite being two precipitated crystalline forms of CaCO3).

Why does ocean acidification threaten marine ecosystems?

Many laboratory experiments have demonstrated that a decrease in seawater W induces a 10-30% decrease in coral calcification.  Similar studies have been undertaken to quantify larval and planktonic calcification in undersaturated, acidic waters. It is generally assumed that W (CaCO3 saturation state) controls calcification rates at an organismal level. This is because in more acidic environments (i.e. in undersaturated) it is more energetically expensive for an organism to create and maintain skeletons. This is of grave concern, as marine calcifiers are ubiquitous community members that often maintain the basal level of food chains or create the three-dimensional structure of the seafloor.





Learn More:

Offshore Renewable Energy Projects in the United States (Google Earth .kmz file)

US Department of Energy Wind and Hydropower Technologies Project

Electric Power Research Institute's Ocean Energy Page

US Offshore Wind Collaborative

Global Offshore Wind Database

Minerals Management ServiceOffshore Energy and Minerals Management

Outer Continental Shelf Alternative Energy and Aleternate Use Guide

US Offshore Renewable Energy Potential




Learn More:

Climate Change and the Carbon Cycle

Marine Conservation in a Changing Climate

Sea Surface Warming

Sea Level Rise

Ocean Acidification

Offshore Renewable Energy


Climate Change and Ocean Acidification Projects:

Ocean Acidification- From Ecological Impacts to Political Opportunitites

EPA and Ocean Acidification

Ocean Acidification

2008 AAAS Symposium

Deep-Sea Corals

Ocean Acidification and Its Potential Effects on Marine Ecosystems